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?????? ãÇå* ÇáÃá*ÇÝ Fibres:*ØáÞ Úáì ÃäæÇÚ ãÎÊáÝÉ ãä ÇáãæÇÏ Çáá*Ý*É..Ãá*ÇÝ ØÈ*Ú*É æÅÕØÇÚ*É.



ÇáÃá*ÇÝ
Fibres

ÇÕØáÇÍ *ØáÞ Úáì ÃäæÇÚ ãÎÊáÝÉ ãä ÇáãæÇÏ Çáá*Ý*É. ÈÚÖåÇ Ãá*ÇÝ ØÈ*Ú*É natural fibres æÃá*ÇÝ ãä ÕäÚ ãä ÕäÚ ÇáÅäÓÇä man made fibres.
æÇáÃá*ÇÝ ÇáØÈ*Ú*É ÅãÇ ãä ÃÕá äÈÇÊ* ßÇáÞØä æÇáÌæË æÇáßÊÇä æÅãÇ ãä ÃÕá Í*æÇä* ßÇáÕæÝ ææÈÑ ÇáÌãá æÇáÍÑ*Ñ ÇáØÈ*Ú*.
æÊäÞÓã ÇáÃá*ÇÝ ãä ÕäÚ ÇáÅäÓÇä Åáì ÞÓã*ä: ÇáÃæá ÇáÃá*ÇÝ ÇáÓá*áæÒ*É cellulosic fibres æåÐå ÊÕäÚ ãä áÈ ÇáÎÔÈ wood pulp æãä ÃãËáÊåÇ ÇáÑÇ*æä viscose rayon æÃá*ÇÝ ÎáÇÊ ÇáÓá*áæÒ cellulose acetate fibres æ*ØáÞ Úáì åÐ*ä ÇáäæÚ*ä ÇÓã ÇáÍÑ*Ñ ÇáÕäÇÚ* artificial silk.
æÇáÞÓã ÇáËÇä* ãä Ãá*ÇÝ ÕäÚ ÇáÅäÓÇä å* ÇáÃá*ÇÝ ÇáÊ* ÊÕäÚ ãä ÇáÈæá*ãÑÇÊ ÇáãÕäÚÉ Synthetic polymers æÊÚÑÝ åÐå ÈÇáÃá*ÇÝ ÇáÚÖæ*É ÇáãÎáøÞÉ Synthetic organic æãä ÃãËáÊåÇ á*ÇÝ ÇáÈæáì Ãã*Ï polyamide fibres æå* ÇáÃá*ÇÝ ÇáãÚÑæÝÉ ÈÇÓã ÇáäÇ*áæä Nylon æÇáÃá*ÇÝ ÇáÃßÑ*á*å Acrylic fibres æãä ÃÓãÇÆåÇ ÇáÊÌÇÑ*É ÇáÃæÑáæä Orlon æÇáÏÑÇáæä Dralon æÇáÃßÑ*áÇä Acrilan æÃá*ÇÝ ÇáÈæáì ÇÓÊÑ Ployester fibres æãä ÃÓãÇÆåÇ ÇáÊÌÇÑ*É ÇáÊÑ*á*ä Terrylene æÇáÏÇßÑæä Dacron æÇáÊÑ*Ý*ÑÇ Trevira.
æÞÏ ÚõÑÝÊ ÇáÃá*ÇÝ ÇáØÈ*ÚÉ ãäÐ ÂáÇÝ ÇáÓä*ä ÅÐ ßÇäÊ ÊÛÒá Åáì Î*æØ yarn Ëã ÊäÓÌ Åáì ÃÞãÔÉ Ãæ ÊÕäøÚ ãäåÇ ÍÈÇá ropes.
ÃãÇ ÇáÃá*ÇÝ ãä ÕäÚ ÇáÅäÓÇä Ýå* äÓÈ*Ç ÕäÇÚÉ ÍÏ*ËÉ ÈÏÃÊ ÚÇã 1905 ÈÅäÊÇÌ ÇáÃá*ÇÝ ÇáÓá*áæÒ*É æÝ* ÚÇã 1939 ÈÏà ÅäÊÇÌ Ãæá ÃäæÇÚ ÇáÃá*ÇÝ ÇáÚÖæ*É ÇáãÕäÚÉ æåæ ÇáäÇ*áæä Ëã ÊÈÚ Ðáß ÅäÊÇÌ ÇáÃá*ÇÝ ÇáÃßÑ*á*å ÚÇã 1948 ÃãÇ Ãá*ÇÝ ÇáÈæáì ÇÓÊÑ Ýáã *ÈÏà ÅäÊÇÌåÇ ÅáÇ Ý* ÚÇã 1953.
æÞÏ ÈáÛ ÇáÅäÊÇÌ ÇáÚÇáã* ãä ÇáÃá*ÇÝ ãä ÕäÚ ÇáÅäÓÇä ÚÇã 1992 ÍæÇá* 18,3 ãá*æä Øä ãÊÑì (ãäåÇ 2,3 Øä Ãá*ÇÝ Óá*áæÒ*É æ16 ãá*æä Øä Ãá*ÇÝ ãÎáÞÉ) Ý* Í*ä Ãä ÅäÊÇÌ ÇáÃá*ÇÝ ÇáØÈ*Ú*É Ý*ÇáÚÇáã ÓäÉ 1992 ã ÞóÏøöÑ ÈÍæÇá* 20,5 ãá*æä Øä (ãäåÇ 18,7 ãá*æä Øä ÞØä æ1,74 ãá*æä Øä ÕæÝ æ60 ÃáÝ Øä ÍÑ*Ñ ØÈ*Ú*) Ã* Ãä ãÇ *ÞÑÈ ãä äÕÝ ÇÓÊåáÇß ãÕÇäÚ ÇáÛÒá æÇáäÓ*Ì Ý* ÇáÚÇáã åæ ãä ÇáÃá*ÇÝ ÇáÊ* ãä ÕäÚ ÇáÅäÓÇä.
æ*ÑÌÚ ÇáÅÞÈÇá Úáì ÇáÃá*ÇÝ ãä ÕäÚ ÇáÅäÓÇä Åáì ÇáÇäÎÝÇÖ ÇáãÓÊãÑ Ý* ÃÓÚÇÑåÇ æÅáì ÎæÇÕåÇ ÇáØÈ*Ú*É æÇáß*ã*ÇÆ*É ÇáÊ* ÊÖÇåì Ãæ ÊÊÝæÞ Úáì ãÇ *äÇÝÓåÇ ãä ÇáÃá*ÇÝ ÇáØÈ*Ú*É. åÐÇ Åáì ÌÇäÈ Ãä ÅäÊÇÌ ÇáÃá*ÇÝ ÇáØÈ*Ú*É ãÍÏæÏ ÈÇáãÓÇÍÇÊ ÇáãÎÕÕÉ áÒÑÇÚÉ ÇáÞØä Ãæ ÇáãÑÇÚ*.
ÇáÃá*ÇÝ Û*Ñ ÇáÚÖæ*É ÇáÕäÇÚ*É Synthetic Inorganic Fibres: ÇßÊÓÈÊ ÇáÃá*ÇÝ ÇáÊ* ÊõÕäÚ ãä ãæÇÏ Û*Ñ ÚÖæ*É Ãåã*É ÎÇÕÉ äÙÑÇð áÇÓÊÎÏÇãÇÊåÇ ÇáãÊÚÏÏÉ Ý* ÇáÕäÇÚÉ ÎÇÕÉ Ý* ÇáÕäÇÚÇÊ ÇáåäÏÓ*É æÝ* ÃÚãÇá ÇáÈäÇÁ æãä ÃãËáÊåÇ:
(Ã) Ãá*ÇÝ ÇáÒÌÇÌ Glass Fibres or Glass Wool.
Í*Ë *ÓÊÚãá ÇáÕæÝ ÇáÒÌÇÌ* Ý* ÃÛÑÇÖ ÇáÚÒá ÇáÍÑÇÑ* æÝ* ÊÞæ*É reinforcement ÈÚÖ ÇáãæÇÏ ßÇáÈáÇÓÊ*ß æÇáÌÈÓ æÇáãØÇØ æÇáÃÓãäÊ.
(È) Ãá*ÇÝ Óá*ßÇÊ ÇáÃáæãä*æã Aluminium Silicate Fibres. æÊÓÊÚãá ÃÓÇÓÇð Ý* ÃÛÑÇÖ ÇáÚÒá ÇáÍÑÇÑ* ÎÕæÕÇð ÚäÏ ÏÑÌÇÊ ÇáÍÑÇÑÉ ÇáãÑÊÝÚÉ 400 Ü 1200°ã) ÇáÊ* áÇ *ãßä ÇÓÊÎÏÇã ÇáÕæÝ ÇáÒÌÇÌ* ÚäÏåÇ.
(Ì) Ãá*ÇÝ ÇáßÑÈæä * Carbon Fibres æÊÓÊÚãá Ý* ÊÞæ*É ÇáÈáÇÓÊ*ß æ*äÊÌ Úä åÐå ÇáÊÞæ*É ãæÇÏ ÊÚÑÝ ÈÇÓã ÇáãæÇÏ ÇáãÑßÈøÉ composites æå* ÊÝæÞ ÇáÝáÒÇÊ ßÇáÃáæãä*æã æÇáÕáÈ Ý* ÞæÊåÇ æÕáÇÈÊåÇ æÎÝÉ æÒäåÇ æãÞÇæãÊåÇ ááÊÂßá æáÐÇ ÊÓÊÎÏã Ý* ÕäÇÚÉ ãÑßÈÇÊ ÇáÝÖÇÁ æÇáØÇÆÑÇÊ æÈÚÖ ÃÌÒÇÁ ÇáãÍÑßÇÊ ÇáäÝÇËÉ

 

 

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